God was called by many names in the Old Testament – 16 to be exact. Each name has a deeper meaning behind it and represents an aspect of God.
Here are the 16 names of God in the Old Testament and their meaning.
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The Names of God in the Old Testament
Here are the different names of God in the Old Testament and their meaning.
#1 Jehovah Nissi
In Exodus, Moses gives God the name Jehovah Nissi which means The Lord is my Banner.
“So Joshua overcame the Amalekite army with the sword. Then the Lord said to Moses, “Write this on a scroll as something to be remembered and make sure that Joshua hears it, because I will completely blot out the name of Amalek from under heaven.” Moses built an altar and called it The Lord is my Banner. He said, “Because hands were lifted up against the throne of the Lord, the Lord will be at war against the Amalekites from generation to generation.” (Exodus 17:13-16 NIV).
#2 Jehovah Raah
In Psalm 23, David gives God the name Jehovah Raah which means The Lord is my Shepherd.
“The Lord is my shepherd, I lack nothing. He makes me lie down in green pastures, he leads me beside quiet waters, he refreshes my soul. He guides me along the right paths for his name’s sake. Even though I walk through the darkest valley, I will fear no evil, for you are with me; your rod and your staff, they comfort me,” (Psalm 23:1-4 NIV).
#3 Jehovah Rapha
In Exodus, God refers to himself as Jehovah Rapha which means The Lord who heals.
“He said, “If you listen carefully to the Lord your God and do what is right in his eyes, if you pay attention to his commands and keep all his decrees, I will not bring on you any of the diseases I brought on the Egyptians, for I am the Lord, who heals you.” (Exodus 15:26 NIV).
#4 Jehovah Shammah
In Ezekiel, the prophet Ezekiel is shown a vision with a city named Jehovah Shammah which means The Lord is there.
“The distance all around will be 18,000 cubits. And the name of the city from that time on will be: the Lord is there,” (Ezekiel 48:35 NIV).
#5 Jehovah Jireh
In Genesis, Abraham refers to God as Jehovah Jireh which means The Lord will Provide.
“So Abraham called that place The Lord Will Provide. And to this day it is said, “On the mountain of the Lord it will be provided.” (Genesis 22:14 NIV).
#6 Jehovah Shalom
In Judges, Gideon refers to God as Jehovah Shalom which means The Lord is Peace.
“But the Lord said to him, “Peace! Do not be afraid. You are not going to die.” So Gideon built an altar to the Lord there and called it The Lord Is Peace. To this day it stands in Ophrah of the Abiezrites,” (Judges 6:23-24 NIV).
#7 Jehovah Sabaoth
In Samuel, Hannah refers to God as Jehovah Sabaoth, which means The Lord of Hosts.
“And she vowed a vow and said, “O Lord of hosts, if you will indeed look on the affliction of your servant and remember me and not forget your servant, but will give to your servant a son, then I will give him to the Lord all the days of his life, and no razor shall touch his head.” (1 Samuel 1:11 ESV).
#8 Jehovah Tsidkenu
In Jeremiah, God refers to himself as Jehovah Tsidkenu which means The Lord is our Righteousness.
“Behold, the days are coming, declares the Lord, when I will raise up for David a righteous Branch, and he shall reign as king and deal wisely, and shall execute justice and righteousness in the land. 6 In his days Judah will be saved, and Israel will dwell securely. And this is the name by which he will be called: ‘The Lord is our righteousness.’” (Jeremiah 23:5-6 ESV).
#9 Jehovah Mekoddishkem
In Exodus, God refers to himself as Jehovah Mekoddishkem which means The Lord who Sanctifies.
“Now the Lord spoke to Moses, saying, “Now as for you, speak to the sons of Israel, saying, ‘You must keep My Sabbaths; for this is a sign between Me and you throughout your generations, so that you may know that I am the Lord who sanctifies you. Therefore you are to keep the Sabbath, for it is holy to you. Everyone who profanes it must be put to death; for whoever does any work on it, that person shall be cut off from among his people,” (Exodus 31:12-14 NASB).
The term Adonai is a title in the Old Testament which means lord, master and/or king. It wasn’t a title used exclusively for God, but for those in authority as well.
“When his master saw that the Lord was with him and that the Lord gave him success in everything he did,” (Genesis 39:3 NIV).
#11 El Elyon
In Genesis, it refers to God as El Elyon which means God Most High.
“Then Melchizedek, king of Salem brought out bread and wine. He was priest of God Most High, and he blessed Abram, saying, “Blessed be Abram by God Most High, Creator of heaven and earth. And praise be to God Most High, who delivered your enemies into your hand.” (Genesis 14:18-20 NIV).
#12 El Shaddai
In Job, God refers to himself as El Shaddai which means God Almighty.
Then the Lord said to Job, “Will the faultfinder contend with the Almighty? Let him who rebukes God give an answer.” (Job 40:1-2 NASB).
#13 El Olam
In Genesis, Abraham refers to God as El Olam, which means The Everlasting God.
“Abraham planted a tamarisk tree at Beersheba, and there he called on the name of the Lord, the Everlasting God,” (Genesis 21:33 NASB).
In the first sentence of the Bible, the word Elohim is used. Elohim means God.
“In the beginning God created the heavens and the earth,” (Genesis 1:1 NASB).
#15 El Qanna
In Deuteronomy, God refers to himself as Qanna which means Jealous God.
“For the Lord your God is a consuming fire, a jealous God,” (Deuteronomy 4:24 NASB).
In Exodus, God refers to himself as Yahweh which means “I Am”.
“Then Moses said to God, “Behold, I am going to the sons of Israel, and I will say to them, ‘The God of your fathers has sent me to you.’ Now they may say to me, ‘What is His name?’ What shall I say to them?” 14 And God said to Moses, “I AM WHO I AM”; and He said, “This is what you shall say to the sons of Israel: ‘I AM has sent me to you.’” (Exodus 3:13-14 NASB).
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